What is the significance of Poverty Point?
Poverty Point in Louisiana, one of the most significant archaeological sites in in the world, dates to 3,500 years and represents the largest, most complex settlement of its kind in North America.
What was Poverty Point and why was it important?
Construction. Poverty Point is considered one of the most important archaeological sites in North America, built by an ancient but highly civilized group of people. Radiocarbon dating puts the construction of the site between fourteen and eighteen centuries before the common era.
Why was the dock at Poverty Point so important?
The dock would have provided an easy route for people to reach the site from the bayou. This was important because the bayou was used for trade, travel and fishing. People raised the uppermost part of the dock where it intersects with the plaza.
What made Poverty Point so attractive?
Others were attracted by the site?s natural resources. Still others came to create the site?s mounds and ridges or to take part in ceremonies. Most probably had deep family ties in the area. The people who made the first of the site?s mounds probably could not have guessed how the site would look 600 years later.
Can you visit Poverty Point?
Located in northeastern Louisiana, Poverty Point National Monument can be visited in any season. This site, which contains some of the largest prehistoric earth works in North America, is managed by the state of Louisiana. These state park facilities are open to the public.
What is the longitude of Poverty Point?
32.6362ø N, 91.4033ø W
Poverty Point World Heritage Site/Coordinates
What did the people of Poverty Point eat?
Thanks to animal and plant remains, we know their diet consisted largely of fish, alligators, frogs, turtles, deer, hickory nuts, aquatic tubers, fruits and other wild foods. Most of the animal bones found on-site were from locally caught fish. The question of why Poverty Point was abandoned remains unanswered.
What happened to the Poverty Point people?
The question of why Poverty Point was abandoned remains unanswered. A subsequent American Indian group came along around 700 A.D. and reused a small part of the site, but otherwise, it remained abandoned until its rediscovery in the 1800s.
What do we know about the Poverty Point cultures?
At its most basic, Poverty Point culture can be defined as an exceptionally precocious mound-building culture that developed a remarkable and extensive trade in high-quality stone. Presumably, organic materials like feathers, hides, and wooden objects were part of the exchange, but, if so, the evidence has eroded away.
What happened to Adena people?
Lasting traces of Adena culture are still seen in the remains of their substantial earthworks. At one point, larger Adena mounds numbered in the hundreds, but only a small number of the remains of the larger Adena earthen monuments still survive today.
What did people do in Poverty Point Louisiana?
Poverty Point?s residents were considered ?pre-agricultural,? which means that, despite the rich farming environment, they had to live off the land in other ways. Hunting and fishing were both big components of Poverty Point life, as was picking indigenous fruits and nuts.
Is the Poverty Point National Monument in Louisiana?
A large, sophisticated society about which we know little constructed the impressive complex. Today, Poverty Point National Monument, operated by the State of Louisiana as a State park, records the technological and economic achievements of a bygone people.
What do you need to know about Poverty Point?
The aerial view of Poverty Point shows the area containing the mounds and ridges. Hike the mounds at Poverty Point to get up close and personal with the mysterious ancient history. Stone and clay artifacts found at Poverty Point. Discover the Poverty Point history at the museum on site at this UNESCO World Heritage site.
Where is Poverty Point in the Mississippi Valley?
This article is about the U.S. National Monument and Louisiana state historic site in the lower Mississippi valley. For the geographical feature in Massachusetts also called Poverty Point, see Fairhaven, Massachusetts. / ? 32.63667øN 91.41139øW ? / 32.63667; -91.41139
What is the significance of protein binding?
Protein binding is most clinically significant for antimicrobial therapy, where a high degree of protein binding serves as a drug ?depot,? allowing for increased duration of the time the drug concentration remains above the bacterial minimum inhibitory concentration, adding to antimicrobial efficacy.
Why are plasma proteins important?
Plasma proteins, such as albumin and globulin, that help maintain the colloidal osmotic pressure at about 25 mmHg. Electrolytes like sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, chloride, and calcium help maintain blood pH. Immunoglobulins help fight infection and various other small amounts of enzymes, hormones, and vitamins.
How do plasma protein binding affect drug activity?
Protein-binding may affect drug activity in one of two ways: either by changing the effective concentration of the drug at its site of action or by changing the rate at which the drug is eliminated, thus affecting the length of time for which effective concentrations are maintained.
What binds to plasma proteins?
The two major plasma proteins in humans are serum albumin, which predominately binds neutral and basic xenobiotics, and à1-acid glycoprotein, which predominately binds acidic xenobiotics. Plasma protein binding is related to lipophilicity.
What is the primary role of protein binding on drug action?
Protein binding can influence the drug?s biological half-life. The bound portion may act as a reservoir or depot from which the drug is slowly released as the unbound form. Since the unbound form is being metabolized and/or excreted from the body, the bound fraction will be released in order to maintain equilibrium.
What if two highly protein bound drugs are given together?
If two highly protein bound drugs are given together, they will compete for protein binding sites. This competition may be dangerous because it may result in both drugs being less protein bound or one of the drugs being less protein bound.
What are the 4 major plasma proteins?
Albumin, globulins and fibrinogen are the major plasma proteins. Colloid osmotic (oncotic) pressure (COP) is maintained by the plasma proteins, principally by albumin, and is necessary to maintain intravascular volume. Normal COP in adult horses is 15?22 mmHg.
What are 4 functions of plasma?
Plasma carries water, salts and enzymes. The main role of plasma is to take nutrients, hormones, and proteins to the parts of the body that need it. Cells also put their waste products into the plasma. The plasma then helps remove this waste from the body.
Is plasma protein binding reversible?
Drugs and plasma proteins Once a drug has been absorbed into the circulation it may become attached (we say bound) to plasma proteins. However this binding is rapidly reversible and non-specific ? that is many drugs may bind to the same protein.
Which drugs is 99% protein bound in plasma?
11.2 Monitoring Free Drug Concentrations in Patients With Uremia, Liver Disease, and in Critically Ill Patients. Drug?protein binding may vary from 0% (eg, lithium) to 99% (eg, ketorolac), and it is only the unbound drug (free drug) that is pharmacologically active.
Why is plasma protein binding important in drug discovery?
Objective: Plasma protein binding (PPB) of drugs is important pharmacokinetic (PK) phenomena controlling the free drug concentration in plasma and the overall PK and pharmacodynamic profile. Prediction of PPB at the very early stages of drug development process is of paramount importance for the success of new drug candidates.
What happens when plasma protein binding is 0%?
This is easiest to understand if you consider a drug that has 0% plasma protein binding ? this drug would be absorbed, enter the blood and immediately enter the tissues and elicit its effect. This drug would have immediate onset of effect, and its effect would be short-lived.
How are drug molecules bound in the plasma?
Let?s say that a drug has 50% plasma protein binding, and let?s say that there are 100 drug molecules in the plasma. 50 drug molecules are bound and 50 are not. If the 50 drug molecules that are not bound will leave the plasma and enter the tissue will 25 of the protein-bound drug molecules loosen from the proteins.
Are there different methods for plasma protein binding?
3 different methods have been validated based on performing the equilibrium dialysis at different plasma concentrations (10% plasma, 50% plasma and 100% plasma). For the 10% and 50% plasma methods the fraction unbound values are scaled to a fraction unbound at 100%. The application of each method is described in the table below.