What is the seismograph used for today?
A modern seismograph can help scientists detect earthquakes and measure several aspects of the event: The time at which the earthquake occurred. The epicenter, which is the location on the surface of the earth below which the earthquake occurred. The amount of energy released by the earthquake.
When was the seismograph used?
The first true seismograph, according to Italian seismologists, was created in 1875 by Italian physicist Filippo Cecchi. The Cecchi seismograph also used pendulums, but it was the first to record the relative motion of the pendulums with respect to Earth?s ground motions as a function of time.
What do seismographs tell us?
A seismograph, or seismometer, is an instrument used to detect and record earthquakes. Generally, it consists of a mass attached to a fixed base. During an earthquake, the base moves and the mass does not. The motion of the base with respect to the mass is commonly transformed into an electrical voltage.
What is the atomic bomb equivalent to a 8.0 earthquake?
Seismic energy by magnitude compared:
Magnitude Energy in joules (J) TNT equiv. 5.0 2.0 x 1012 500 tons of TNT 6.0 6.3 x 1013 15 kilotons of TNT 7.0 2.0 x 1015 500 kilotons of TNT 8.0 6.3 x 1016 15 million tons of TNT
Who Named earthquake?
The earliest responses include work by John Bevis (1757) and John Michell (1761). Michell determined that earthquakes originate within the Earth and were waves of movement caused by ?shifting masses of rock miles below the surface.?
What are the three types of seismographs?
To overcome this problem, modern seismograph stations have three separate instruments to record horizontal waves ? (1) one to record the north-south waves, (2) another to record east-west waves, and (3) a vertical one in which a weight resting on a spring tends to stand still and record vertical ground motions.
What is the atomic bomb equivalent to a 7.0 earthquake USGS?
A magnitude 4.0 earthquake is only equivalent to about 6 tons of TNT explosives, but because the Richter scale is a base-10 logarithmic scale, the amount of energy released increases quickly: A magnitude 5.0 earthquake is about 200 tons of TNT, magnitude 6.0 is 6,270 tons, 7.0 is 199,000 tons, 8.0 is 6,270,000 tons.
Who is the most famous seismologist?
Charles Francis Richter Alma mater Stanford University; California Institute of Technology Known for Richter magnitude scale Gutenberg?Richter law Surface-wave magnitude Scientific career Fields Seismology, Physics
What four activities can trigger a tsunami?
Tsunamis are caused by violent seafloor movement associated with earthquakes, landslides, lava entering the sea, seamount collapse, or meteorite impact. The most common cause is earthquakes.
How is a seismograph used in an earthquake?
A seismograph is used to reveal information about the severity of an earthquake. A seismograph is a scientific instrument which records information about the duration, intensity, and direction of a seismic disturbance, classically an earthquake.
Is the seismograph also known as a foreshock?
The seismograph is also known as a seismometer. Sometimes the series of tremor called foreshock can be felt before the actual earthquake happens. At that time this instrument becomes boon for us.
Where are seismometers used in the United States?
Seismometers (instruments for recording earthquakes) are tested and fitted at the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory before going out into the field. USGS scientist John Hamilton installing a seismograph in the offices of the major-league soccer team San Jose Earthquakes? new stadium.
What?s the difference between a seismograph and a pendulum?
How do they work?
A seismometer is the internal part of the seismograph, which may be a pendulum or a mass mounted on a spring; however, it is often used synonymously with ?seismograph?. Seismographs are instruments used to record the motion of the ground during an earthquake.
What is the seeding rate for sorghum-sudangrass?
Seed can be broadcast at a rate of 25 to 35 lb/A for su- dangrass or 30 to 40 lb/A for sorghum-sudangrass onto a fine, but firm seedbed and then cultipacked to ensure good soil-seed contact. When seeding using a grain drill, reduce seeding rates to 15 to 20 lb/A for sudangrass and 20 to 30 lb/A for sorghum- sudangrass.
How long does it take Sudan grass to grow?
14 to 21 days
Sudangrass is normally planted in late spring when the soil has become warm and exceeds 65§ F. When soil temperatures at planting are from 50 to 60§ F, sudangrass germination drops to 25-60%, and plants require 14 to 21 days to emerge.
How much is sorghum sudan per acre?
Planting rates vary from 20 to 40 pounds per acre depending on whether the seed is broadcast or planted in rows. Planting dates are usually from May to July but can be earlier in the deep South. Soil temperature needs to be a minimum of 60 degrees Fahrenheit for germination. Seeding depth should be 1 inch.
How deep do you plant Sudan grass?
Seed should be planted at a depth of 0.75 to 1 inch in fine textured soils, and up to 1.75 inches in sandy soils. Slightly deeper planting is sometimes appropriate to reach moisture. Optimum row spacing can vary depending on the purpose of the forage.
Does sorghum Sudan grass make good hay?
Although sorghum of any type can be used for hay or grazing, a sorghum-sudangrass cross or a sudangrass is usually a best choice. These varieties have smaller diameter stalks,which improve drydown for hay and palatability for cattle versus forage sorghums normally used for silage.
What is the seeding rate for Sudan grass?
120 to 150 pounds
PLANTING RATES: Sudangrass should be planted at a rate of 120 to 150 pounds of seed per acre. This high seeding rate produces finer-stemmed hay that is desirable for export to Japan.
Does Sudan grass make good hay?
Does sorghum make good hay?
When managed properly, they can provide excellent hay or grazing and can be used in emergencies to replace failed crops due to drought, hail or other weather calamities at minimal costs. Forage sorghum also serves as an excellent cover crop, suppressing weeds and protecting the soil from wind and water erosion.
How fast does sorghum Sudan grass grow?
Yields have ranged from 3 to 5 tons/A dry matter. It can be ready for harvest as early as 45 days after planting. The smaller stems give it better drying characteristics than other sorghums for hay making. Sudangrass hybrids are available that are slightly larger and higher yielding.
What grows well with Sudan grass?
Sorghum-sudangrass supports the sprawling sesbania, forage soybeans and cowpeas. Sunnhemp has an upright habit, but could compete well for light if matched with a sorghum-sudangrass cultivar of a similar height. Plants grow very tall (up to 12 feet), produce tons of dry matter and become woody as they mature.
How much does Sudan grass seed cost per acre?
Broadcast the Sudan grass seed at a rate of 120 to 150 lbs. per acre for hay and 20 to 60 lbs. per acre for a cover crop. Density seed rates depend fully on the types of soil in the field or small plot. Consult your soil test for further seeding recommendations.
How big should sorghum Sudan be per acre?
What is not often considered is the seed size difference of our sorghum sudan and sudangrass hybrids. We recommend a population on a drilled multiple harvest sorghum sudan of about 600,000 ? 650,000 plants per acre. Quite often we think for a sorghum sudan a bag per acre, or 50 lbs. is fine to achieve that population.
How long does it take for Sudan grass to germinate?
Sudan grass will die when subjected to a heavy frost. The seed has a high germination rate, 95 percent, when subjected to a constant 68 degrees Fahrenheit for a period of six days. Daytime temperatures that exceed 104 F greatly reduce the germination rate of the newly planted seed.
Can you grow Sudan grass as a cover crop?
A single season of growing sorghum-sudangrass is sometimes all it takes to create a new, healthier garden area. Since seeds are inexpensive, readily available, and easy to grow, this is a great option for home-gardening beginners looking for a cover crop.